Friday, 30 March 2012

Motivational Thoughts & Motivational Video

Maintain a balance between long-term and short-term goals. Long-term goals tend to be hidden in a fog of the future, so have some short-term goals – like clothes, cars, vacations – to keep your excitement up.

“If A is success in life, then A equals x plus y plus z. Work is x; y is play; and z is keeping your mouth shut.” – Albert Einstein

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Wednesday, 28 March 2012

How Simple Ideas Lead to Scientific Discoveries

Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed -- Eratosthenes' calculation of the Earth's circumference around 200 BC and Hippolyte Fizeau's measurement of the speed of light in 1849. (Launching a series on Inventions that Shaped History)

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Friday, 23 March 2012

10 Incredibly Significant Moments In History

1. Founding of Religious Traditions(6Th Century BC)

Confucius, Buddha, and Mahavira (the prophet of Jainism) all lived in the 6th century, though their works were compiled later (in the case of Buddha, much later). Important books of the Old Testament were written or assembled at roughly the same time. Greek culture was climbing toward its classical peak, thanks to natural philosophers (Thales, Parmenides), early political leaders (Solon), engineers (Chersiphron), and poets (Sappho, Pindar). No century is more significant for both Western and Eastern intellectual traditions.

2. Mediterranean Culture(5Th-4Th Century BC)
The first great dramatists (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aristophanes), the greatest sculptors in history(Phidias), and Socrates all lived in Athens in the 5th century BC. No other place in history produced more genius. The Greeks’ run continued in the 4th century with Plato (one of the most influential thinkers of all time) and Aristotle (the founder of ethics, political theory, natural history and logic), and mathematicians Eudoxus and Euclid. At the other end of Eurasia, Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu and the followers of Confucius elaborated Chinese thought; the abacus and blast furnace were invented; and the Grand Canal was begun. India produced epic literature.

3. Eastern Empires(11th-12th Century AD)
Chinese civilization has had several peaks but the Song Dynasty was perhaps the greatest: Zhu Xi (pictured above) established Neo-Confucianism; printing, the compass and canal locks were developed; and Chinese painting reached its apex. Meanwhile, Islamic, Indian and Southeast Asian cultures produced great achievements, from Persian poetry and math to Angkor Wat and Jain temples. Meanwhile, Europe started climbing out of the Dark Ages with the first industry and monuments such as the great medieval cathedrals and castles.

4. Industrial Revolution(1764-1790)
Following James Watt’s improvement of the steam engine in 1764, almost every year in the late 18th century brought a new revolution. The science of chemistry was founded by Lavoisier; Hutton introduced the principles of geology; Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations founded economics; Mozart developed the forms of classical music; Burke and Hamilton/Madison defined British-American political theory; Blackstone’s Commentaries did the same for law; photosynthesis was discovered. Technical advances included electrolysis, the ship’s chronometer, chemical processing, tool-making machines, and the water frame.

5. Age of Newton(1660-1687)
Important discoveries happened throughout the 17th century, but the most influential scientific advance was Newton’s theory of gravity. Newton got around to publishing the Principia in 1687, but the crucial ideas came to him in the 1660s. Newton and Leibniz invented calculus about the same time. Boyle’s Law, which led to the development of chemistry, was discovered in 1662; Leeuwenhoek and others began microscopic observations at the same time. It was a fertile time for art (Rembrandt, Vermeer) and literature (Racine, Moliere, Milton, Pascal) and unfortunately, bad philosophy (Hobbes, Locke).

6. Astronomy, Mechanics, Literature(1580-1610)
This 30-year period saw revolutionary change on all fronts. Galileo’s telescope and Kepler’s planetary theory were the birth of modern astronomy; Galileo’s De motu launched classical physics; literature took big steps forward with Cervantes’ Don Quixote (the earliest novel still widely read) and Montaigne’s Essays (which created that genre), and a guy named Shakespeare turned out a bunch of sonnets, plus Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth and the rest. Islamic architecture reached a late peak in Isfahan and Istanbul.

7. Age of Invention(1870-1890)
These two decades saw the invention of electric light, alternating current, the telephone, automobile, steam turbine, gas turbine, water heater, transformer, arc welding, phonograph and seismograph; development of vaccination and surgical techniques; Boltzmann’s development of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; production of radio waves; the birth of the environmental conservation movement; and artworks by Rodin, Monet, Brahms, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Eliot, Chekhov and Twain.

8. Biological Science(1855-1866)
Darwin’s theory of natural selection and Pasteur’s germ theory revolutionized biology and medicine; Lister introduced sterilization in hospitals, and Mendel (pictured above) conducted the first experiments in heritability (though not widely known until later). There were milestones in many other arenas: Maxwell described electromagnetic fields and radiation; and the first internal combustion engine, gas heater, commercial steel, plastics, and rechargeable battery were produced.

9. Roman Republic and Empire(100 BC-100 AD)
The rap on the Romans is they stole their culture from Greece, but it’s not really true. The Romans borrowed freely from the Greeks but excelled in different fields — engineering, architecture, satire, and ethics (the Stoic tradition peaked in Rome, a little later, with the writings of Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius). No other society except Greece (and perhaps England or China) ever made greater cultural contributions. At about the same time, Chinese culture reached its greatest geographic extent with the Han Empire.

10. Renaissance(1483-1513)
The artistic Renaissance began earlier, but during this 20-year period Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Durer, and Botticelli created many of the world’s most famous paintings: The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, the Sistine Chapel, the Raphael Rooms, the Pieta, the Sistine Madonna, The Birth of Venus. The European discovery of the New World was also a rather big deal.

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Wednesday, 21 March 2012

The purpose of human life ??

The purpose of human life is to enquire:
Who am I?
Where have I come from?
What will happen to me at death?
Why do I suffer?
Why do others suffer?
Who is God?
How can I serve God?
Why is there variety of living beings?
How can I get out this cycle of birth, old age, disease, and death?
How can I live eternally?

Only the human beings enquire, the animals do not enquire. Unfortunately at the present time many humans have become two legged animals.

Give up lust, greed, and anger. These force us to sin and the result is hellish life in this life and the lives after.

Give up the killing of animals, especially the cows. The animals are also our brothers and sisters. This means no meat eating and no leather (car seats, sofas, clothing).

Human birth is rare, we have to make the best use of it by not engaging in sinful activities. The sinful activities are being greedy, lusty, angry, and violence against other living beings (animals and humans).

Don’t waste this life by getting attached to the bodily platform of life (meat eating, lust, greed, anger, partying, discoing, bollywood and so on). This body is just one drop in the ocean of bodies that we are going through.

A sword is hanging over y our head. It will fall at any moment. All your properties, cars, and big bank balance won't help you at the time of death. Only your service to Lord Krishna will count at death. So make the best use of this precious life by serving Lord Krishna.

All your physics, chemistry, math, computing, and business knowledge will be completely erased at death. Only spiritual knowledge will go with you, and the top most spiritual knowledge is the Bhagavad-Gita. So don't waste precious time, read the Bhagavad-Gita, listen to the Bhagavad-Gita, and watch the Bhagavad-Gita.

We are the soul and not this body. The body is temporary but the soul is eternal and immortal. Our aim in life should be to escape from fangs of material life (birth, old age, disease, and death). This can only be done by humans, who have the higher consciousness.

We can attain an immortal spiritual body full of bliss, knowledge, eternal, and without a trace of calamity if we follow the Bhagavad-Gita with seriousness.

- Be compassionate towards all living beings, thus love all living beings. This means don't be envious or hateful of others. Be friendly to others, be nice to others, be kind to others, be generous to others, be merciful to others, be charitable to the needy. Don't cheat others, don't lie, don't steal, don't hurt others, don't drink, don't take drugs, don't eat meat, don't buy leather.

- This body you (the soul) are residing in, is temporary, but the real you, the soul, is eternal. Just as we change worn out clothes, jobs, houses, cars, partners, and so on. One day you will be forced to change your body too. So don't get too attached to this temporary body and material life. And just as a manufacturing company designs it's products today for production in the future. Similarly you are designing your next body with the actions you are taking now.

So if you think let me enjoy now and forget about the future. Thus if you think your next life is not worth thinking about now. Then your next life will be that of nothing. You will take birth among the 8 million species of living beings below that of human beings (animal and plant kingdoms).

- There is only one person who without any doubt declared himself and proved that he was the Supreme Personality of God, Lord Krishna. Always think of him, worship him, and serve him. In this age of Kali, which means the age of ignorance, there will be so many godless people who will try to make you godless too. Surrender onto the only proven God, Lord Krishna.

Do you know anyone who can lift a mountain, expand himself into thousands of forms, show the whole Universe in his mouth, put out a forest fire by swallowing it, kill all the demonic and save people in this very life. Lord Krishna did all this.
Thanks For Believing In Life and Me........

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Monday, 19 March 2012

Most Inspirational Song of All Time "Somewhere Over The Rainbow"

by Israel Kamakawiwo’Ole

This is an all-time classic. The song speaks of this magical place over the rainbow where things will be better. It refers to this other, better place compared to where we are now. If you feel down and out, and when things seem tough, this song will lift you up. Just remember that the better place isn’t “somewhere out there”, but here where we are. It’s up to us to make the best of what we have :).
The song was originally sung by Judy Garland in 1939 (Wizard of Oz) and has since been resung by many people. The version below is by Israel Kamakawiwo’Ole. His soothing vocals makes it a very peaceful and calming experience listening to the song.
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Saturday, 17 March 2012

Larry Page's Powerful and Inspiring Graduation Speech in "University of Michigan"

Larry Page, University of Michigan, 2009

“I think it is often easier to make progress on mega-ambitious dreams. I know that sounds completely nuts. But, since no one else is crazy enough to do it, you have little competition. There are so few people this crazy that I feel like I know them all by first name. They all travel as if they are pack dogs and stick to each other like glue. The best people want to work the big challenges.” – Larry Page

Larry Page is the co-founder of Google, the #1 search engine in the world. He’s part of the reason why all of us get such seamless web searching experience today :D. In his heartfelt speech, he shared how he created Google. It all started out with a dream – literally, a dream while he was sleeping. When he woke up in the middle of the night, he had a sudden idea to download the web. He immediately wrote down the idea and approached his advisor later. From there, Google was born. He had a dream, and rather than brush it aside, he took action on it.
Larry also shared the importance of treasuring our families and friends. He lost his dad to polio when he was 23, which left him devastated. Where are your families and friends? How’s your relationships with them? While we’re pursuing our dreams and ambitions, don’t forget our relationships. As I wrote in the Life Wheel, our life is made up of 11 segments, including family, social and love. Our lives can never truly the best if we neglect any one segment, so make sure you use the wheel as your guide every step of the way.
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Thursday, 15 March 2012

Great Leaders of the World Who Inspired the Humanity

Martin Luther King Jr.: He was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, US. He was the leader of the American Civil Rights Movement. During the initial years of his career, he became active in the Civil Rights Movement. He famously led the Montgomery Bus Boycott and was instrumental in founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He was the youngest person to receive the Nobel Prize for his work in fighting racial discrimination with non-violent measures, at the age of 35. He gave a religious angle to his struggle against poverty and opposition to the Vietnam War.

On the evening of April 4, 1968, while Martin Luther King was standing in the balcony of Lorraine Motel, he was shot. He underwent a surgery after which he was declared dead. His assassination resulted in a wave of riots across many cities. According to his biographer, his heart was that of a sixty-year-old man when he died. This apparently indicates the stress that he had to undergo during his struggle for civil rights. He is still remembered as an influential orator and one of world's greatest leaders.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Born on October 2, 1869 and popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, this leader was a prominent figure in the Indian Independence movement. He pioneered 'Satyagraha', which was an unarmed revolt against injustice. He, for the first time ever, laid and followed the principles of fighting against injustice by the use of non-violence. He headed the Indians in the 'Dandi March' and the very famous 'Quit India Movement', which proved groundbreaking for the Indians in the attainment of freedom. 

After assuming the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, he advocated women rights and strongly opposed inequality. He was instrumental in ending the untouchability that prevailed in India during those times. Throughout life, he stood by non-violence and truthfulness. He led a modest life and fostered simple living and high thinking. The values and principles of his life continue to inspire a large section of society. He was assassinated on January 30, 1948. He is commemorated for his values of non-violence and his birthday is celebrated as the International Day of Non-Violence.

Adolf Hitler: Born on April 20, 1889, Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician who led the Nazi Party. He was Chancellor of Germany and Fuhrer of Germany. As a child he wanted to become a painter and he later described himself as a misunderstood artist. His efforts to gain formal training in art and earn recognition as a painter were in vain. Hitler had always admired Germany and longed to live in a real German city. He was active in the First World War and emerged as a leader of the Nazi Party in Weimar Germany.

Under his leadership, the Nazis brutally assassinated their antagonists, restructured the State economy and established a fascist dictatorship. The German attack on Poland in 1939 caused the outbreak of World War II. Hitler's racism caused the deaths of millions, the event acknowledged as the Holocaust. During 1945, Germany was in a bitter state of war. To add to the misery, the Red army invaded Berlin. Possibly the intolerable stress and pressure that Hitler went through, caused him to commit suicide. The death of this world leader brought a turbulent life to an end.

Eleanor Roosevelt: Born on October 11, 1884 in New York, Eleanor Roosevelt grew up to become the First Lady of the United States in 1933. She completed her formal education in 1902 and became engaged with Franklin Roosevelt, the fifth cousin of her father. They married on March 17, 1905. Later in 1921 when Franklin suffered from paralysis of his legs, his wife Eleanor stood by him through those difficult times and it was due to her encouragement that he could return to politics. She worked towards reforms in education and was active in the women's suffrage movement. She brought about reforms to the lives of the African-Americans.

After the demise of her husband in 1945, Eleanor had to step down from the position of the First Lady. In the following year, she chaired the UN Human Rights. She drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, thereby establishing equality in society. She worked for the uplift of the underprivileged and opened the doors of hope for many. Her death on November 7, 1962 meant the loss of an able diplomat, activist and a great leader.

These were only a few of those eminent leaders in the world history who led the masses, gained appreciation and also faced controversies. They shall be remembered for years to come.

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Saturday, 10 March 2012

Charles Darwin Quotes

"Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science." 
"In the struggle for survival, the fittest win out at the expense of their rivals because they succeed in adapting themselves best to their environment."
"Man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system- with all these exalted powers- Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin."
"Nothing before had ever made me thoroughly realise, though I had read various scientific books, that science consists in grouping facts so that general laws or conclusions may be drawn from them."
"But when on shore, & wandering in the sublime forests, surrounded by views more gorgeous than even Claude ever imagined, I enjoy a delight which none but those who have experienced it can understand - If it is to be done, it must be by studying Humboldt"
"I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection"
"I have no great quickness of apprehension or wit which is so remarkable in some clever men, for instance Huxley"
"We will now discuss in a little more detail the Struggle for Existence."
"The expression often used by Mr. Herbert Spencer of the Survival of the Fittest is more accurate, and is sometimes equally convenient"
"Physiological experiment on animals is justifiable for real investigation, but not for mere damnable and detestable curiosity."
"I love fools’ experiments. I am always making them."
" As for a future life, every man must judge for himself between conflicting vague probabilities."
" Believing as I do that man in the distant future will be a far more perfect creature than he now is, it is an intolerable thought that he and all other sentient beings are doomed to complete annihilation after such long-continued slow progress"
"doing what little one can to increase the general stock of knowledge is as respectable an object of life, as one can in any likelihood pursue"
"On seeing the marsupials in Australia for the first time and comparing them to placental mammals: "An unbeliever . . . might exclaim 'Surely two distinct Creators must have been at work'""
"we can allow satellites, planets, suns, universe, nay whole systems of universe[s,] to be governed by laws, but the smallest insect, we wish to be created at once by special act"
"a scientific man ought to have no wishes, no affections, -- a mere heart of stone"
"I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of Caterpillars"
"I am turned into a sort of machine for observing facts & grinding out conclusions"
"I am a strong advocate for free thought on all subjects, yet it appears to me (whether rightly or wrongly) that direct arguments against christianity & theism produce hardly any effect on the public; & freedom of thought is best promoted by the gradual illumination of men's minds, which follow[s] from the advance of science. It has, therefore, been always my object to avoid writing on religion, & I have confined myself to science. I may, however, have been unduly biassed by the pain which it would give some members of my family, if I aided in any way direct attacks on religion"
"Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science"
"To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree. Yet reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a perfect and complex eye to one very imperfect and simple, each grade being useful to its possessor, can be shown to exist; if further, the eye does vary ever so slightly, and the variations be inherited, which is certainly the case; and if variation or modification in the organ be ever useful to an animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, though insuperable by our imagination, can hardly be considered real"
"The fact of evolution is the backbone of biology, and biology is thus in the peculiar position of being a science founded on an improved theory, is it then a science or faith?"
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Wednesday, 7 March 2012

The Most Important Things to Simplify in Your Life

“Purity and simplicity are the two wings with which man soars above the earth and all temporary nature.” – Thomas Kempis

Simplicity brings balance, freedom, and joy. When we begin to live simply and experience these benefits, we begin to ask the next question, “Where else in my life can i remove distraction and simply focus on the essential?”

1.Your Possessions - Too many material possessions complicate our lives to a greater degree than we ever give them credit. They drain our bank account, our energy, and our attention. They keep us from the ones we love and from living a life based on our values. If you will invest the time to remove nonessential possessions from your life, you will never regret it.

2.Your Negative Thoughts – Most negative emotions are completely useless. Resentment, bitterness, hate, and jealousy have never improved the quality of life for a single human being. Take responsibility for your mind. Forgive past hurts and replace negative thoughts with positive ones.

3.Your Time Commitments – Most of us have filled our days full from beginning to end with time commitments: work, home, kid’s activities, community events, religious endeavors, hobbies… the list goes on. When possible, release yourself from the time commitments that are not in line with your greatest values.

4.Your Words – Use fewer words. Keep your speech plain and honest. Mean what you say. Avoid gossip.

5.Your Connections to the World - Relationships with others are good, but constant streams of distraction are bad. Learn when to power off the blackberry, log off facebook, or not read a text. Focus on the important, not the urgent. A steady flow of distractions from other people may make us feel important, needed, or wanted, but feeling important and accomplishing importance are completely different things.

6.Your Goals – Reduce the number of goals you are intentionally striving for in your life to one or two. By reducing the number of goals that you are striving to accomplish, you will improve your focus and your success rate. Make a list of the things that you want to accomplish in your life and choose the two most important. When you finish one, add another from your list.

7.Good Health–Good health would be high on anyones priorities, and the presence of love in ones life is also of major importance.

8.Sex–Sex is one of the most important things in life. It comes built into the machine. Understanding sex is real important, y'know. And it's not enough just to say, "All men are shits," or "What the fuck do women want?" That's good for openers, but one must press on to deeper insights. As an aid to your greater search, I offer the following anecdote from my own humble experience: an only-minimally exaggerated retelling of the single kinkiest sexual encounter I ever had.

9.Personal Growth–How then do we make significant progress in our lives, as evidenced by personal growth or an increase in wisdom? We look at the results we have and are achieving in our lives.If our results are unsatisfactory, we reassess our beliefs and make adjustments to our actions.Additional important feedback is our emotions (fear, anger,unhappiness,disappointment etc) which acts as warning signs and which leads us to evaluate either our rules or beliefs, or our actions. Our target is to lead a joy-filled, intense yet balanced life, leading to good life results and continually increasing wisdom.

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Tuesday, 6 March 2012

Powerful and Inspiring Graduation Speech in "Stanford University" by Steve Jobs

Steve Jobs, Stanford University, 2005

“Remembering you’re going to die, is the best way I know, to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.” – Steve Jobs

“Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most importantly, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.”

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Monday, 5 March 2012

Top 10 Freedom Fighters in India

Indian Freedom Fighters, like Mahatma Gandhi, Bhagat Singh and Subash Chandra Bose had struggled against the British to accomplish independence for the country and its people.

Indian Freedom Fighters had fought against the British Empire and continued the Indian freedom struggle with their undying spirit and bravery. The valorous Freedom Fighters of India sacrificed their lives to achieve independence for the nation. They faced several tortures, hardships and exploitations to earn national freedom. Independent India was the dream of each and every Indian who lived under the British rule. Every individual, during the British rule, fought in some or other way having a common aim of abolishing the British and various other colonial authorities ruling over different parts of India. A century of struggle, revolution, blood shedding, sacrifices and battles followed and finally India became independent on the 15th of August, 1947. India secured independence from the British rule but the nation lost a large number of men and women who possessed immense bravery and spirit of patriotism. These great people are honoured with the title of Freedom Fighters. The Indian Independence Movement comprised mainly the efforts by Indians to secure political independence from the rule of the British, the Portuguese and the French. This involved a broad range of Indian political organisations, rebellions and philosophies between 1857 and the independence of India on 15th of August, 1947.

Some of the famous Indian freedom fighters were Mangal Pandey, Rani of Jhansi, Tantia Tope and the famous leader Mahatma Gandhi who brought in the weapon of non-violence to fight against the enemy. Some of the other major freedom fighters of India include Lala Lajpat Rai, Annie Besant, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Chandrashekhar Azad, Sarojini Naidu, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Dadabhai Naoroji, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, Sucheta Kriplani etc. There are a large number of women and men who fought daringly for the independence of India.

1-Mahatma Gandhi (The father of the nation)
From among the numerous freedom fighters, Mahatma Gandhi was the most famous freedom fighter of India who took the lead and ensured a free India on the 15th of August 1947. He was honoured by the Indians by making him the father of the Nation. Gandhiji was born in a Hindu family at Porbandar in the state of Gujarat in 1869. His entire life was devoted to the principles of non-violence, truth and love. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was regarded as the architect of the freedom of India. 

2-Subash Chandra Bose 
Subash Chandra Bose was famously called Netaji or the leader. He was a freedom fighter and a well-reputed leader on the political circle in pre-independent India. Netaji got elected as Indian National Congress President in 1937 and 1939. Netaji founded the Indian National Army. Due to his anti-British activities and remarks, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was jailed 11 times between the years 1920 to 1941. 

3-Bhagat Singh 
Bhagat Singh was another famous freedom fighter of India. His name is linked with sacrifice, bravery, courage and vision. Bhagat Singh became a symbol of heroism and inspiration after he sacrificed his life at the tender age of thirty. With other revolutionaries, he founded the Hindustan Socialist republican Association. In order to caution the British of its misdeeds, he threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly. By accepting death at the prime of his life, Bhagat Singh became a symbol of courage and sacrifice and secured a place in every Indian heart for ever. 

4-Bal Gangadhar Tilak 
A great freedom fighter and a firebrand leader, Bal Gangadhar Tilak is remembered as a famous person in the Indian struggle for independence. In order to fight for the independence of India and to serve his fellow countrymen, Bal Gangadhar Tilak published newspapers and founded schools. He was famous in the country as one of the trios; Lal, Bal and Pal and the other tow of this group were Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal. 

5-Lakshmi Bai (The Queen of Jhansi)
Lakshmi Bai, the Rani of Jhansi was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi ruled by the Marathas. She was among the most prominent and leading figures in the 1857 rebellion, and was regarded as a symbol of resistance to in India against the British rule. She is remembered in the history of India as a legend, the firebrand queen who commenced the Indian Revolution against the Colonialism of British.

6-Tantia Tope
One of the great freedom fighters of this period was Tantia Tope, who is considered to be a hero in the 1857 revolt. His name used to strike terror in the heart of English generals. Being cheated by his friend, Tatia Tope accepted death as a hero for his country. 

7-Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel ;
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was one of the freedom fighters of India and he also became the deputy Prime Minister of India after independence. The brave deeds of this person earned him the title of the Iron Man of India. He was called Sardar after his active role in the Bardoli Satyagraha. He was a renowned lawyer but quit his practice to fight for India`s independence. As the deputy Prime Minister of India, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel contributed significantly in India`s integration by the merging of a number of princely states in the Indian Union. 

8-Gopal Krishna Gokhale 
Another famous freedom fighter of India was Gopal Krishna Gokhale. He was also a part of the Indian National Congress. He was regarded as the political Guru of the great Indian leader, Mahatma Gandhi. At Benaras, in the year 1905, Gokhale presided over annual session of Indian National Congress. He opposed the entry of extremists in the Congress party. 

9-Ashfaqulla Khan 
Another famous firebrand and young revolutionary of India was Ashfaqulla Khan who sacrificed his life for his motherland. A prominent member of the Hindustan Republican Association, Ashfaqulla Khan, and his associates carried on the Kakori train robbery and was thus hanged to death by the British. 

10-Ram Prasad Bismil 
A well-known young revolutionary by the name of Ram Prasad Bismil sacrificed his life for his motherland. He was a member of the Hindustan Republican Association and was a crucial member of the group which had a hand in the Kakori train dacoity. 

Saturday, 3 March 2012

Famous Speech by Mahatma Gandhi On Kashmir Issue

Today there is talk of war everywhere. Everyone fears a war breaking out between the two countries. If that happens it will be a calamity both for India and for Pakistan. India has written to the U.N. because whenever there is a fear of conflict anywhere the U.N. is asked to promote a settlement and to stop fighting from breaking out. India therefore wrote to the U. N. O. however trivial the issue may appear to be, it could lead to a war between the two countries. It is a long memorandum and it has been cabled. Pakistan’s leaders Zafrullah Khan and Liaquat Ali Khan have since issued long statements. I would take leave to say that their argument does not appeal to me. You may ask if I approve of the Union Government approaching the UNO I may say that I both approve and do not approve of what they did. I approve of it, because after all what else are they to do? They are convinced that what they are doing is right. If there are raids from outside the frontier of Kashmir, the obvious conclusion is that it must be with the connivance of Pakistan. Pakistan can deny it. But the denial does not settle the matter. Kashmir has acceded the accession upon certain conditions. If Pakistan harasses Kashmir and if Sheikh Abdullah who is the leader of Kashmir asks the Indian Union for help, the latter is bound to send help. Such help therefore was sent to Kashmir. At the same time Pakistan is being requested to get out of Kashmir and to arrive at a settlement with India over the question through bilateral negotiations. If no settlement can be reached in this way then a war is inevitable. It is to avoid the possibility of war that the Union Government has taken the step it did. Whether they are right in doing so or not God alone knows. Whatever might have been the attitude of Pakistan, if I had my way I would have invited Pakistan’s representatives to India and we could have met, discussed the matter and worked out some settlement. They keep saying that they want an amicable settlement but they do nothing to create the conditions for such a settlement. I shall therefore humbly say to the responsible leaders of Pakistan that though we are now two countries – which is a thing I never wanted – we should at least try to arrive at an agreement so that we could live as peaceful neighbors. Let us grant for the sake of argument that all Indians are bad, but Pakistan at least is a new-born nation which has more ever come into being in the name of religion and it should at least keep itself clean. But they themselves make no such claim. It is not their argument that Muslims have committed no atrocities in Pakistan. I shall therefore suggest that it is now their duty, as far as possible, to arrive at an amicable understanding with India and live in harmony with her. Mistakes were made on both sides. Of this o have no doubt. But this does not mean that we should persist in those mistakes, for then in the end we shall only destroy ourselves in a war and the whole of the sub-continent will pass into the hands of some third power. That will be the worst imaginable fate for us. I shudder to think of it. Therefore the two Dominions should come together with God as witness and find a settlement. The matter is now before the UNO. It cannot be withdrawn from there. But if India and Pakistan come to a settlement the big powers in the UNO will have to endorse that settlement. They will not object to the settlement. They themselves can only say that they will do their best to see that the two countries arrive at an understanding through mutual discussions. Let us pray to God is to grant that we may either learn to live in amity with each other or if we must light to let us fight to the very end. That may be folly but sooner or later it will purify us. Now a few words about Delhi. I came to know of the incidents which took place last evening through Brijkishan. I had gone to the Camp for the evening prayer. I came away after the prayer but he had stayed over to talk to the people in the Camp. There are some Muslim houses at as little distance from the Camp. About four or five hundred inmates of the Camp mostly women and children but also some men – issued out of the Camp to take possession of the houses. I am told they did not indulge in any kind of violence. Some of the houses were vacant. Some were occupied by the owners. They tried to take possession even of the latter. The police were near at hand. They immediately went to the spot and brought the situation under control at about 9 O’ clock according to the information I have. The police have stayed on there. I understand they had to use tear gas. Tear gas does not kill but it can be pretty painful. I am told that something has happened today again.
All I can say is that is a matter of great shame for us. Have not the refugees learnt even from their immense suffering that they have to exercise some restraint? It is highly improper to go and occupy other people’s houses. It is for the Government to find them shelter or whatever else their need. Today the Government is our own. But if we defy our own Government and defy the police and forcibly occupy houses the Government is not likely to continue for long. It is still worse that such things should happen in the capital city of India where there are so many ambassadors from all over the world. Do we want to show them the spectacle of people occupying what-ever they can? It is all the more regrettable that women and children were used as a shield. It is inhuman. It is like Muslim rulers keeping a herd of cows in the anguard of their armies to make sure that the Hindus would not fight. It is uncivilized, barbaric behavior. It is still more barbaric to put women and children in front to provide against the police making a lathi charge. It is abuse of womanhood. I must humbly ask all the refugees - women and children – not to behave in this way. Let them settle down. If they don’t, then apart from a war between Indian and Pakistan, we may kill ourselves in mutual strife. We may lose Delhi and make ourselves the laughing-stock of the world. If we want to keep India a free country, we must stop the things that are at present going on. (Speech at the Prayer Meeting on 4th January 1948)

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Friday, 2 March 2012

Powerful and Inspiring Graduation Speech by Oprah Winfrey

Oprah Winfrey, Stanford University, 2008

“I consider the world, this Earth, to be like a school. And our life, the classrooms, and sometimes on this planet Earth school, the lessons often come dressed up as detours, or roadblocks, and sometimes, as full blown crises. And the secret I’ve learned to getting ahead, is being open to the lessons – lessons from the grandest universe of all, that is the universe itself.” – Oprah Winfrey

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Thursday, 1 March 2012

Albert Einstein on Philosophy of Education in Schools

The school has always been the most important means of transferring the wealth of tradition from one generation to the next. This applies today in an even higher degree than in former times, for through modern development of the economic life, the family as bearer of tradition and education has been weakened. The continuance and health of human society is therefore in a still higher degree dependent on the school than formerly.

 Sometimes one sees in the school simply the instrument for transferring a certain maximum quantity of knowledge to the growing generation. But that is not right. Knowledge is dead; the school however, serves the living. It should develop in the young individuals those qualities and capabilities which are of value for the welfare of the commonwealth. But that does not mean that individuality should be destroyed and the individual become a mere tool of the community, like a bee or an ant. For a community of standardised individuals without personal originality and personal aims would be a poor community without possibilities for development. On the contrary, the aim must be the training of independently acting and thinking individuals, who, however, see in the service of the community their highest life problem.

To me the worst thing seems to be for a school principally to work with methods of fear, force and artificial authority. Such treatment destroys the sound sentiments, the sincerity, and the self-confidence of the pupil. It produces the submissive subject. it is no wonder that such schools are the rule in Germany and Russia.
..the desire for the approval of one's fellow-man certainly is one of the most important binding powers of society.

In this complex of feelings, constructive and destructive forces lie closely together. Desire for approval and recognition is a healthy motive; but the desire to be acknowledged as better, stronger, or more intelligent than a fellow being or scholar easily leads to an excessively egoistic psychological adjustment, which may become injurious for the individual and for the community. Therefore the school and the teacher must guard against employing the easy method of creating individual ambition, in order to induce the pupils to diligent work. (Einstein)

It is, in fact, nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry; for this delicate little planet, aside from stimulation, stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to wreck and ruin without fail. It is a grave mistake to think that the enjoyment of seeing and searching can be prompted by means of coercion and a sense of duty. On the contrary, I believe that it would be possible to rob even a healthy beast of prey of its voraciousness, if it were possible, with the aid of a whip, to force the beast to devour continuously, even when not hungry, especially if the food handed out under such coercion were to be selected accordingly. (Albert Einstein on Education)

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